Saturday, May 23, 2020
Going Green in the Home The past few years have seen the world over a risen campaign to avert their greatest threat today, the environment. The effects of global warming have become a worrying phenomenon for man the world over and there has been joined attempt, or seemingly joint to avert the effects. To say seemingly is because despite calls to streamline policies to the cause, countries deemed to have had the greatest responsibility, have continuously declined to sign deals to reduce the same. The U.S.A. and a new entrant South Africa were notably in a heated debate over the same during the recently concluded environment convention in Copenhagen in 2009. However, technology has come with leaps and bounds in an attempt to salvage theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Utopia was depicted to be an island; a fictional one though in the Atlantic Ocean that had an ideal society, as the creator of the fiction depicted the world ought to be, universally. Such a state, as was first proposed by Plato in his book, Repub lic depicted a world where technology was set in a future, much more advanced than it is today. Such advancement in technology will have made man to eradicate death and suffering and the normal human functions like eating, sleeping and reproduction having been replaced by rather artificial means. The comparison of this state of Utopia to a go green environment is because it was deemed to have struck a balance with technology which was to be utilized for the purpose of enhancing the living standards of mankind. Such sentiments seem to have promulgated the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions as presented by Elizabeth and Susan during the 1848 WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Convention that was held at Seneca Falls (Stanton, Unpublished 1848)). The resolutions were to the opinion that man had a duty to pursue his happiness in its substantial true self. They proposed that laws that contradicted this will and enjoyment of happiness would have to be regarded as invalid as well as their source or even enforcement thereof. Their world was to be with regard to the effect that the society has to have regard to the women enjoying their conscience and had to recognize women to be equal to men. It argued that God had intended this to be soShow MoreRelatedGoing Green: Two choices978 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGoing Green: Two choices As electricity rates increase, Michiganders are being forced to dig deeper into their pockets to pay their electrical, water and gas bills. With a record setting winter and rising energy cost, consumers are facing record high bills. The U.S. Energy Information Administration shows that since 2012, energy rates have increased 4.3%. One midland residence family, faced a bill of $660 in the December through January billing period. This is leading many consumers to search outRead MoreMy Vision And Mission Of Green Builders901 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOur Vision Mission At Green Builders our mission is to create energy efficient homes that have less impact on the environment. Our business model includes using renewable resources and certified materials to build and refurbish homes to create them to be sustainable, eco-friendly, and ethical. Our vision is to create a world where homes have less of an impact on the environment and believe that having a green home, or even just making green changes in a home will improve your lifestyle. The NeedRead MoreEssay on Global Green Case Study1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe world people are always talking about global warming and how the world has become so polluted. People often want to do something about it, they just donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s where Global Green USA comes into play. Global Green USA is a national environmental organization. The mission of Global Green USA is to foster a global value shift toward a sustainable and secure future. In order to do this the organization must understand if they have the right strategy and culture to perform as a highlyRead MoreThe Best Option Of Green Practices1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe phrase Ã¢â¬Å"go greenÃ¢â¬ is commonly thrown around. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity isnÃ¢â¬â¢t surprising. The smooth alliteration just rolls off your tongue and of course it causes you to at least appear environmentally conscious. However, many donÃ¢â¬â¢t fully grasp the meaning of the words theyÃ¢â¬â¢re shouting out. Going green means putting the Earth first, even when it would be much simpler not too. Although many individuals have embraced this lifestyle few governments have followed suit claiming that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not necessary, tooRead MoreGreen Architecture Essay1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGreen Architecture is a method to reduce the impact on our environment by using natural resources like energy, water, and the materials that are used in the structure recycled materials or the fixtures used in the home with energy saving features, as well as making a healthier environment. With high-efficiency windows and high value insulation in the walls and floors youÃ¢â¬â¢re your energy would take less too cool or heat up that area. Written by BOB BOB BOB May 2010 Ã¢â¬Å"The history of a green buildingRead MoreShould we go Green or Black?709 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesShould we go green or black? It is high times that we have to decide upon to which color we cling on to Ã¢â¬âgreen or black. Before that, we have to decide on about ourselves and our future generations. Are we expecting to see our sons and daughters to prosper or perish? I hope no parents will like to see their children perish, but to see them having more comfortable life than they had. So, we have to be green, not only for us, but also for our future generations and thus to save our mother planetRead MoreInstal Transformation Essay904 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesInstalling Renewal by Andersen replacement windows and patio doors in your New Jersey or New York Metro home is an exciting journey. There is so much to think about. Will you choose to replace that row of large over-sized double-hung windows with a tri-configuration of sliders that create a wall of glass, or opt for a more traditional look and feel by going back with the same style? Are you going to design your own grille patterns or add some patterned glass to the transom above your entry door? AndRead MoreResearch Paper On Going Green909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTips to Go Green | Electrical Contractors in Mt. Pleasant, SC Going Green? Tips to Get You Started In the U.S., a growing number of people are environmentally conscious. The green movement has something for every one, because typically, going green saves you money. Mister Sparky electrical contractors in Mt. Pleasant routinely provide energy saving and safety tips. The following electrical tips to go green are a collection providing the highest impact on your energy bill, and reducing waste in theRead MoreAn Environmentally Friendly Business Is A Main Priority For National And International Businesses944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬ËsustainabilityÃ¢â¬â¢ used in many businesses these days. A sustainable business is a business that has no negative overall impact on the environment.Ã¢â¬ Although many businesses have become more Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ in their marketing and production, it is very rare to find a sustainable business. One example of a business that is going green is the Citi Bike Company. Not only are the bikes used by thousands of New Yorkers every day, but they are reducing the amount of cars on the street, which is eliminating pollution. BusinessesRead MoreThe Benefits of Becoming Green Essay1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespeople believe that fossil fuel industries are stable, enabling green jobs to produce and manage alternate sources of energy would create a more secure, reliable, and healthy economy. What exactly is a green job? Ã¢â¬Å"The term Ã¢â¬Ëgreen jobsÃ¢â¬â¢ encompasses a number of fields, ranging from jobs that increase energy efficiency and reduce waste, to those that protect biological diversity and decrease dependency on polluting technologiesÃ¢â¬ (Griswold). Green jobs cover a wide range of categories, which means that they
Monday, May 18, 2020
A revenge play or revenge tragedy is a form of tragedy which was extremely popular in the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. One of the best-known Shakespearean revenge tragedies is Othello and tragic comedy is The Tempest. One of the most prominently occurring and important aspects of human nature that appears in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s work is the concept of revenge. In most of the tragic plays of Shakespeare, the avenger has his thoughts of committing revenge and towards the end causes his own downfall and also death and destruction of several other good and supporting characters. The main focus of this essay is to show how Revenge leads to Destruction in Shakespearean plays Ã¢â¬â Othello and The Tempest. The main point of this essay is Ã¢â¬Ëneither the avenger is benefited nor the victimÃ¢â¬â¢. In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello we are taken on a journey with Iago whose thirst for revenge is the main cause for destruction in the play. Iago at one point in time compares himse lf with Cassio which provokes him to take revenge on Cassio. Ã¢â¬Å"If Cassio do remain he hath a daily beauty in his life, that makes me uglyÃ¢â¬ (V.1.19-20) Ã¢â¬Å"No, he must dieÃ¢â¬ (V.1.23). Ã¢â¬Å"His two alleged wrongs are Cassio being promoted before him, and his own wifes suspected intimacy with Othello contributes to his qualities of being cruel and vengefulÃ¢â¬â¢[Canning, Albert Stratford George, 1907]. His demonic qualities can be perceived from the ambiguity of motives for vengeance that he provides and from his frequent references to the
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The heartfelt play, Romeo and Juliet, exemplifies the fact that one will go to great measures for the one that they love. Though written in. 1595 , the issues that both Romeo and Juliet faced are still very much prevalent in our society today. There are still several cultures and religions that shame individuals who date/marry outside of their respective culture or religion. However, as the play, Romeo and Juliet, portrays, true love never fades and will always prosper. As Director Belinda Boyd says to the Capital Soup and I quote The hope that we find underlying love is relevant to all of us, the clash between parental hopes and childhood dreams, the fact that love is stronger than hate, breaking away from tradition or what othersÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Juliet was a Capulet and Romeo was a Montague but their undying love for each other put the differences between them aside. In the fourteenth century Verona Italy was plagued with much violence and tragedy. The country itself was divided for political and religious power. Since the 20th and 21st century the film/ Play has since been enhanced and adapted in many versions as is the case in this production by the UCF theater who decided to set the play in a 1930 s metropolis in and around the speakeasies where races could mingle, but also spark clashes, and tell the tale of two lovers who were caught in the fight between their families ( both alike in dignity) for the control of the clubs , the distribution of alcohol (Even though it was during the prohibition era ) and their piece of the well known American Dream. Although they incorporated a later era which gave more realism to today s society, the underlying scenes and most recognized plots were that of the original play . The story of the play as portrayed by the production involves two young individuals namely Romeo and Juliet who found love amidst the ongoing battle between their families even if it caused their death. They met each other without prejudice. They loved each other for who they were and not their backgrounds or their status in life. If I was to chose myShow MoreRelatedGender Roles and Attitudes toward Love in Shakespeares Hamlet5989 Words Ã |Ã 24 PagesRomeo and Juliet is a heart-breaking tragedy written early in the career of playwright William Shakespeare telling us the story of two teenage Ã¢â¬Ëstar-crossÃ¢â¬â¢d loversÃ¢â¬â¢ whose unfortunate deaths ultimately unite the dispute betw een their two families. Despite the perils involved, they fall in love and marry with the help of two characters, Friar Lawrence and the Nurse. Throughout the play, Shakespeare portrays a range of different kinds of love through the central female characters. Maternal love is offered
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Ganges River, which is popularly known by its own Hindu nameÃ¢â¬âGanga, is the symbol of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s ancient culture and civilization. This river is the most sacred river in Hinduism. People believe that taking a dip into the water of the Ganges will purify their souls from all committed sins in the past, so they can go to heaven. The Ganges River flows from the top of the southern side of the Himalayas in the state of Uttarakhand. In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Ganges River,Ã¢â¬ the author Jay Yett says, Ã¢â¬Å"The Ganges River flows about 2,500 kilometers across the Gangetic Plain and through a coastal delta in Bangladesh to empty into the Bay of Bengal.Ã¢â¬ Not only does it provide water to India, but also to Bangladesh. The major cities that rely on the water of the Ganges are Varanasi, Kolkata, Haridwar, Allahabad, Patna, Kanpur, and Ghazipur. Today, this river is one of the most polluted rivers in the world. According to the article, Metal and Pesticide Pollution Scenar io in Ganga River System, Srikanta Samanta reports that there has been a huge increase in pollution compared to the 9,000 tons in 2009. Since then, she reveals that approximately 22,000 tons of pesticides have been pumped into the river basin (Samanta 355). Each year, thousands of bodies are cremated on the banks of the river, with many being disposed of directly into the river. Furthermore, unwanted babies (i.e, unwanted girl children), cattle, and other animal bodies are also dumped into the river. Observers can say that theShow MoreRelatedAncient Indi The Ancient Indian Civilization1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesKevin Maxim Mr. Ball 8th Grade Social Studies E Block 6 November 2015 Ancient India The ancient Indians were highly influenced by the Ganges river, in fact that was one of the reasons they stayed around so long. This river gave them fertile soil, and also played a big role in their religious practices. The ancient Indian civilization lasted from 3300 BC to 1500 BC. (Kokila) Ancient India had very broad social pyramid requirements and the classes were servants, farmers, warriors and king, and theRead MoreGeography Of The Indus River1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBarrett, Emily Period 6 4/30/15 Geography The Indus River is located on the northwestern part of the sub-continent with other rivers draining into it. Another river called the Ganges River was east of the Indus River. The climate was tropical and contained seasonal winds called monsoons. Monsoons during the winter were dry and went from land to the sea, letting little rain fall on the land. During summer monsoons wet winds go from ocean to land bringing rain with it. The mountainRead MoreThe Holy River of India-River Ganges9512 Words Ã |Ã 39 PagesThe Ganga, especially, is the river of India, beloved of her people, round which are intertwined her memories, her hopes and fears, her songs of triumph, her victories and her defeats. She has been a symbol of Indias age-long culture and civilization, ever changing, ever flowing, and yet ever the same Ganga. - Jawaharlal Nehru, First Prime Minister of India, born in Allahabad on the Ganges Ganges (Hindi Ganga), major river of the Indian subcontinent, formed in the southern ranges of the HimalayaRead MoreIndian History1899 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesa continuous civilization since 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River valley developed an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade. This civilization declined around 1500 B.C., probably due to ecological changes. During the second millennium B.C., pastoral, Aryan-speaking tribes migrated from the northwest into the subcontinent. As they settled in the middle Ganges River valley, they adapted to antecedent cultures. The political map of ancient and medievalRead MoreThe Discovery of India5368 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesscholars who have published elaborate studies in the field of Indian history have called the book as a classic. Jawaharlal Nehru in his work has narrated in this book IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s rich and complex past from the prehistoric times to the final years of colonial rule in India. Nehru begins his account from the beginning of the Indus Valley Civilization and outlines the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s geography before introducing the native tribes. The highlights of the book are NehruÃ¢â¬â¢s own readings of the Indian epics, rituals, andRead MoreThe Birth of Civilization18947 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pages1 The Birth of Civilization Mohenjo-Daro Figure. Scholars believe this limestone statue from about 2500 B.C.E. depicts a king or a priest from Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus valley in present-day Pakistan. Does this figure seem to emphasize the features of a particular person or the attributes of a particular role? Hear the Audio for Chapter 1 at www.myhistorylab.com CRAIMC01_xxxii-031hr2.qxp 2/17/11 3:22 PM Page xxxii EARLY HUMANS AND THEIR CULTURE page 1 WHY IS Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ considered a definingRead MoreOrigin of Hindu Religion2457 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesand pilgrimages 4.2.1 Initiation 5 Sixteen sanskars (rituals) 6 Notes 7 References Etymology The word Hindu is the Persian name of the Indus River (Sanskrit Sindhu), which flows in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The Persian term was further loaned into Arabic as Al-Hind referring to the land of the people who live across river Indus, and into Greek as Indos, whence ultimately English India. By the 13th century, the Persian loanword HindustÃ n emerged as a popular alternativeRead MoreOrigin of Hindu Religion2468 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagespilgrimages 4.2.1 Initiation 5 Sixteen sanskars (rituals) 6 Notes 7 References Etymology The word Hindu is the Persian name of the Indus River (Sanskrit Sindhu), which flows in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The Persian term was further loaned into Arabic as Al-Hind referring to the land of the people who live across river Indus, and into Greek as Indos, whence ultimately English India. By the 13th century, the Persian loanword HindustÃ n emerged as a popular alternativeRead MoreIncredible India3330 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesINCREDIBLE INDIA [pic] TABLE OF CONTENTS Ã¢ â" Introduction Ã¢ â" Facts and figures Ã¢ â" Population of India Ã¢ â" History of India Ã¢ â" Culture and people Ã¢ â" Geography Ã¢ â" Environment of India Ã¢ â" Name of many cities of India Ã¢ â" Language Ã¢ â" National symbol of India Ã¢ â" Festivals of India Ã¢ â" Holidays of India Ã¢ â" Religion demography Ã¢ â" Tourist place of India Ã¢ â" Famous people of India Ã¢ â" Hindi movies Ã¢ â" Music Ã¢ â" Food of India Ã¢ â" Conclusion IntroductionRead MoreEthnic Tourism Essence of India7906 Words Ã |Ã 32 Pagesmankind and perpetuated aspirations to decipher a world beyond this world. India has dominated the world stage through most of human history, as the home of mighty empires, as a powerful trading nation, and as a wellspring of culture and civilization. India, the land of culture and heritage.. Tourism in India has shown a phenomenal growth from its distant past. Today, Indian tourism offer array of tourist destination that attracts travelers from all over the world. India, the land mighty mountains
string(97) " of informing the reader that in sheer quantity, he has written as much Ã¢â¬Å"Augustine and Calvin\." Religion: A Trivial Conundrum Religion in fiction, much like religion in politics, has grown to be considered taboo. Religious characters are often expected to be comedic and used only as experimental or secondary. Their only true attribute is that of piety, playing on old stereotypes to drive the characterization. We will write a custom essay sample on Novel and Robinson or any similar topic only for you Order Now In a world where being politically correct gets in the way of day-to-day talk, approaching controversial topics in any form of writing can be seen as potentially unprofitable, too risque. The competitive market of publishing doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow room for mistakes anymore and itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to stay on the safe route than to stray on alternative, smaller Ã¢â¬â often more interesting Ã¢â¬â roads that may or may not lead to success. This makes literature that deals with the religious on a primary level all the more rare and exciting to read. Marilynne RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Gilead is one such example. Religion is indisputably in the forefront of this tale and, although it may not be the catalyst of the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s writing, it is, without a doubt, one of GileadÃ¢â¬â¢s main themes. The novelÃ¢â¬â¢s very format is even done in such a manner that its sole goal seems to emphasize the holy, the divine Ã¢â¬â religion, in particular, Christianity. The novel is written from the perspective of John Ames, an old Reverend, on his deathbed, writing his final words to his then seven-year-old son in the form of a letter. A writer his entire life, Ames uses his best tool as a measure to insure that his son know something of his life, even if Ames has passed away years before the son ever gets a chance to read the letter. The novel reads somewhat like a diary, a spiritual one at that. At every corner scriptures are referenced or AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ faith somehow fits into the narration. Robinson very easily transmits AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ constant remembrance of Christianity by plucking in allusions to God, the Church, or his work, not to mention the almost over-usage of the word Ã¢â¬Å"ChristlikeÃ¢â¬ . Religion very early on is dealt with as an important subject and as the book continues, it gains more and more time in the spotlight. While initially one could think that the novel would focus less with the nature of Christianity, since Ames even says that he does not with to persuade his son to follow his footsteps in the Ministry Ã¢â¬â even if he does point out some of its Ã¢â¬Å"advantagesÃ¢â¬  Ã¢â¬â as it roles forward, the focus drifts ever closer to God and how the world itself reminds Ames of the sacred. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s descriptive tendencies, in themselves are also a way Robinson finds to allude to the religious. They are AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ way of referencing GodÃ¢â¬â¢s work, attempting to capture the magnificence that he sees in the world, and transmitting it to his son via words, much like God did to Moses. All that is beautiful, all that is right, it would there seem, is thanks to the Almighty. Robinson uses a very poetic tone in her writing of this novel, which helps connect the secular with the divine and emphasizes even more the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s religious nature. As Robinson herself said in an interview, Ã¢â¬Å"both poetry and theology push conventional definitions and explore perceptions that might be ignored or passed off as conventional, but when they are pressed yield much larger meanings, seem to be part of a much larger system of reality. Ã¢â¬  A poetic diction, therefore, lends to the reader more easily identifying with the holy. It is easier to connect with the abstract when using a language that lends itself more readily to emotions and ideology rather than straightforward storytelling and facts. In this manner, the non sequitur tendencies of the novel also lend to the goal of lifting the reader to a theological level. Robinson also has Ames mention poets such as John Donne and George Hebert, stressing the importance of the lyrical. The poetic quality, additionally, is not presented in an overly romanticized fashion, but more as a part of AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ view of life. He speaks of the world as GodÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpiece and, has small details such as, Ã¢â¬Å"smell[ing] the rainÃ¢â¬  or Ã¢â¬Å"a bubble float[ing] past [a] window, fat and wobbly and ripening toward that dragonfly blue they turn just before they burst,Ã¢â¬  take on holy connotations to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s. The mortal and divine worlds seem to mesh in AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ head Ã¢â¬â perhaps the consequence of being so close to death. In fact, at times, Ames seems to speak as though he had already passed on, operating from a dead manÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. For instance he says that Ã¢â¬Å"it is actually hard for [him] to remember how mortal [he] is those days. There are painsÃ¢â¬ ¦but not so frequent or even so severe when they come that [he is] as alarmed by them as [he] should be. Ã¢â¬  As a Reverend, Ames does not fear death, so he allows himself to be swept away with its beauty perhaps a little sooner than he should. His tone is therefore somewhat omniscient, which leads to his sounding rather obnoxious, although that may be a trait that one reserves the right to in old age. The father-son dynamic is also intrinsically important in Gilead. The whole point of AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ writing is to find a medium through which to communicate with his son. He aims, through storytelling and somewhat sporadic advice, to give his son some sort of a guide for life. Basically, Ames writes his son his very own, personal Bible. This may seem like a fairly conceited venture for a Reverend to undertake, and one can see from AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ voice that he is, even if he denies it, not the humblest of men. At many points throughout the novel, such as when referring to his wife and his grandfather as people God may like to spend time with, Ames ends up comparing himself, to some extent, with Jesus Christ; essentially calling himself Godlike. Humble, he is not. He even reaches the point of informing the reader that in sheer quantity, he has written as much Ã¢â¬Å"Augustine and Calvin. You read "Novel and Robinson" in category "Essay examples"  He does so in the calmest of tones, yet still with an undeniable desire to spark some awe in his son. Confusingly, however, he still believes that his life Ã¢â¬Å"does not compare with [his] grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬  It would seem that a man of the Church would hold God to the highest of esteems, but his grandfather seems to beat out the old white man in the sky at times. Ames views his grandfather in an almost unrealistic idealized view. Even when he criticizes him, the tone is lighthearted and almost playful. At one point Ames goes as far as relating the thunder and lightning striking in the sky with God Ã¢â¬Å"tipping [His] hat to [John AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ grandfather]. As if to say, Glad to see you here in the stands Reverend. Ã¢â¬  Yet, their relationships are hard to pinpoint and AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ reverence and faith in God is indisputable; which lends to a quite confusing reading of the book. All the major conflicts and drives in this book seem to regard the father-son relationship. From the desire that leads John AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ to write his letter, to the multiple stories about his own father and grandfather, even to Jack BoughtonÃ¢â¬â¢s struggled relationship with his own dad. Ultimately, it seems that all the referencing to father-son relationships is RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s way of emphasizing the father-son condition human beings have with God. He is the ultimate parent Ã¢â¬â the nurturer and the punisher, the constant in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. All the various conflicts, Ã¢â¬Å"daddy issues,Ã¢â¬ and stories in the novel are therefore metaphors and allusions to the larger, more important questions human beings are faced with and their own tribulations and worries with dealing with the theological. Religion is a family affair in the AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ household. As John writes his letter, he is already the third consecutive generation of Reverends in his family. He speaks of religion as his vocation, deems himself to have been lucky to have had the Church in his path. The only Ã¢â¬Å"strayÃ¢â¬ of the Ames is JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, who was initially raised to follow in his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps. However, after the brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s turn to atheism, John seems to take it upon himself to fill his unworn shoes. And now, years later, when John is close to departing this earth, he once again takes it upon himself to continue his family legacy; eternalize his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to Christianity in the form of a letter to his son. To John, his family life is undoubtedly linked inherently with his religious one. For example, Ames says that Ã¢â¬Å"A man can know his father, or his son, and there might still be nothing between them but loyalty and love and mutual incomprehension. Ã¢â¬  Right before this phrase, he speaks of how there are things that he preaches but nonetheless truly does not understand. He very smoothly transitions from religion to family, almost as if in his mind, there were not a clear distinction. This goes to aid the idea that all the familial conflicts in the novel are there as a tool for Robinson to constantly remind the reader of Christianity and its importance in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Ames writes his letter to his son as his way of carrying on his existence, eternalizing his memory, emphasizing religionÃ¢â¬â¢s importance. Ultimately, it does seem that religion is infused in the story not only as plot device and characterization but also with deeper intents from RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s part to spread her faith. The father/son dynamic therefore serves much more as a subtle way of perpetuating the divine in the mundane world. It is much easier for a reader to relate with human emotions and domestic troubles than directly with the divine and celestial. GileadÃ¢â¬â¢s story therefore, is only a means to an end Ã¢â¬â the glorification of Christianity. While writing this book, Robinson may have very well set out with the intention of spreading the Protestant or Christian word, diffusing is subtly through fiction into the American subconscious. But even if she does, she manages to do so in a peculiar and original manner. She follows the school of the IowaÃ¢â¬â¢s WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Workshop which goes very much against Post-Modernism and believes that a plain style is preferable to an overly decorated one. Nonetheless, Gilead does not have the sound or feel of an obsolete book. The voice is meant to be that of a man from the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and the novel could have very well been written in that decade, but there is still something quite refreshing and original about RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s style. The tranquility with which she treats the theme of Religion Ã¢â¬â like itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a fact of life Ã¢â¬â makes so that the preaching really does just sound like fatherly advice. This novel potentially could get quite overbearing with religious undertones but the human-relationships-factor retains enough vitality and presence to overpower it. The metafictional, first person narrative, also brings about the question of reliability. Ames speaks with a certainty that only age brings, he admits ignorance at many points, but they only seem to emphasize his own self-awareness. At some points in the novel, the first-person voice even seems to mix with that of RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s herself. Ã¢â¬Å"I believe IÃ¢â¬â¢ll make an experiment with candor hereÃ¢â¬  says John Ames, yet as a reader, I find that RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s own voice resounds through this phrase. It would thus be logical to conclude that AmesÃ¢â¬â¢ view of the world, and his desire to spread Christianity onward would coincide with RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s own desires. Even if with ulterior motives, it takes audacity to take a subject as controversial as religion and place it in the limelight of a novel. In an age of Post-Modernism (or is it Post-Post-Modernism? it is almost uplifting to find a piece of work that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t trying to take satire and irony to the next level. By strictly following an old-school agenda and format, Robinson manages to be more innovative that most other modern writers Ã¢â¬â almost in the way fashion repeats itself every few decades and old styles manage to be more cutting edge and modern than that which used to be the next-new-trend. People may criticize Robinson for infusing too much religion and personal agenda into her novel, but in the end, she is still one of the few that manage to do this without sounding overly or even overtly preachy and patronizing. This in itself is modern and forward thinking. Taboo subjects are usually those that are most interesting and worth discussing, so we canÃ¢â¬â¢t let public perceptions and social fears impede us of sharing our opinions Ã¢â¬â whatever they may be. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  Marilynne Robinson. Gilead. New York: Picador, 2004. 23  Interview with Missy Daniel. Marilynne Robinson. Religion and Ethics Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Newsweekly. PBS. 9 Oct. 2006 .  Robinson 35  Robinson 9  Robinson 75  Robinson 30  Robinson 19  Robinson 39  Robinson 46  Robinson 7  Robinson 7 How to cite Novel and Robinson, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about th Leadership in Star Trek for Vulcan Leader. Answer: Introduction Leadership may be defined as the ability to guide an organization or a group of people. This may be considered a research area as well as a hands-on skill. There exist various viewpoints on the approaches taken to leadership. According to the environment of the academics in US, leadership maybe defined as the social influence process whereby the concerned person may support and help his fellow workers to accomplish a common job. These definitions change with the change in the approach towards the definition of the project. The following report discusses the leadership style of Captain Spock, a character from the television series based on science fiction. The report focusses on the leadership style of the Vulcan leader, Spock as depicted in the sixteenth episode of the first season of the series titled The Galileo Seven. The report attempts an analysis of the effectiveness of the leadership style and behavior of Captain Spock as depicted in the given episode. Discussion A media franchise of America brought into existence by Gene Roddenbury, Star Trek is based on science fiction (Gregory 2016; Greenberger, 2012). The story of the series narrates the adventures of the captain and crew of the fictional aircraft, USS Enterprise (NCC - 1701). The show is set in the twenty-third century in the 2260s in the Milky Way galaxy. The onboard crew of the spaceship include the captain of the ship, Captain James T. Kirk, the first officer Spock, who is also the science officer and the chief medical officer of the team, Leonard McCoy along with the other crew members. The spacecraft that has been in use in the television series is mentioned to be made by the interstellar Federal republic called United Federation of Planets. According to the storyline, the crew is entrusted with the duty of finding planets that may sustain lifeforms. The expedition is conducted in a relatively small part of the galaxy. The television series was first broadcasted on the 8th of Septem ber, 1966 on NBC in the United States. The episode in discussion, The Galileo Seven is the sixteenth episode of the first season of the series. The episode was first aired in on the 5th of January in the year 1967 in the United States (StarTrek.com 2017; Rehak 2016). In this episode, the U.S.S. Enterprise passes by the Murasaki 312, enroute to Makus III. the Makus III is ridden by plague and needs medical supplies which are to be delivered by the starship. The crew of the starship are under the orders from the Starfleet to inquire upon galactic phenomena similar to the exhibited by the beehive-like group of stars. Thus, seven members of the crew and the first officer, Spock embark on a journey to take a closer look of the star-group. The shuttle spacecraft is pulled out of their track and out of the range of sensors of the starship U.S.S. Enterprise. The crew manages a crash landing on a rocky area covered with fog on the Taurus II. The Taurus II is inhabited by huge, combative manlike creatures. The crew of the shuttlecraft along with the first officer had to face and defend themselves against the attacks of the humanoids while trying to mend the space shuttle and leave the hostile planet as soon as possible. Due to an ionization effect on the instruments of the space shuttle, the U.S.S. Enterprise fails in its attempts to find the Galileo. Commissioner Ferris, the federation official who was in charge of the mission to supply emergency medical supplements to the planet Makus III, had objected to undertaking of the exploration mission to explore the galactic phenomena at the quasar like formation of stars under the leadership of Spock, the science officer of the spacecraft (Startrek.com 2017). The Galactic High Commissioner demands that the captain of the spaceship, Captain Kirk call off the search for the lost shuttlecraft and proceed on their journey towards the plague-ridden planet of Makus III. In the meantime, on the Taurus II, two of the crew are murdered by the humanoids who reside on the planet. A crew member places an irrational demand for Spock. Spock was demanded to halt the repairmen of the space shuttle and participate in the burial of the dead crew. The logical insight of Spock bars him from complying to the wishes of the lieutenant in the situation that they were facing at the current moment. The Galileo manages to orbit around the planet in an unsteady manner while the starship crew gets busy in preparing for the flight to the planet Makus III. Spock realizes that the shuttle would not be making it out of the gravitational range of the planet and thus in an attempt to escape the planet, the science officer ignites the fuel that was left in the shuttle. The crew of the space shuttle get teleported to the space ship after the crew onboard the U.S.S. Enterprise detect a flare like that of a meteor as the space shuttle gets destroyed in the atmosphere of the Taurus II. Spock sticks to the point that the decision that he took to attempt a try at saving themselves was a logical Vulcan approach to the problem. Officer Spock, is an extremely logic-oriented person. Throughout the entire series, in every random situation the personality of this person which is revealed shows appropriate application of logic and reasoning devoid of emotional attachments. Captain Kirk acknowledges the same fact when he says that he has known Spock to have judged every situation based on logic and logic alone (Hermalin 2014; Hurwitz and Hurwitz 2015). A true leader must not let the air of pride cloud into his head. Spock displayed this trait in the earlier part of the episode, where he mentions that he is a very logical person and neither does he enjoy the idea of commanding nor is he frightened by it. True to his character, in this situation as well, Spock demonstrated his sense of proper reasoning when he spoke of the details of the weapon used to kill Latimer instead of emotionally speaking about the death of his comrade (Nichols 2017; Zehetner and Steinkellner 2014). This was not very readily accepted by two of the other crew members present there and they criticized him for his heartless behavior. On the subject of heading back to the starship it was observed that 150 pounds of weight needed to be dismounted to achieve escape velocity. This needed the crucial decision of sacrificing the life of one crew member back on planet Taurus-II or leaving none behind but jeopardizing the success rate of their survival. At times a leader is forced to take strong decisions, no matter how cruel it may seem, for the benefit of the entire team (Hicks 2017). Officer Spock exhibited such nervous strength under the umbrella of logical indifference and rationally, when he casually decided that it is the most logical solution to ensure the safety of the entire crew. This shows that though Officer Spock is emotionally ignorant, he is a responsible leader (Reynolds 2015; Balzac 2014). A leader must always keep faith in his abilities. He must keep his cool and calm even when the situation around him intensifies or his team members start doubting him (Hermalin 2014). Officer Spock exhibits such dedication and calmness when he sees that the fuel tank of his ship had been depleted. In all the adversities, he never lost his composure and had hope as well as his calm rational mind at work to calculate a way out of the difficult situation his team was in. This shows the composure of Spock as a leader. Although it might seem difficult, sometimes following through the seemingly irrational decision of the team mates is also a duty of the leader to keep their trust in themselves unaltered. As is seen in the case of Gaetanos death, although a proper burial was unnecessary and risky for the crew, but upon being insisted forcefully by his team, Spock decided in favor of the burial. This shows Spock knows when to let go of his personal decisions as a team leader and allow the wishes of his teammates as well. On rare occasions the most crucial decision a leader might have to take is to sacrifice his/her own self for the benefit or rather survival of his team. This requires an immense sense of dedication and responsibility to the team to put their survival even before ones own life, and Spock exhibited such dedication, when he was injured by one of the locals of planet Taurus-II, and ordered his team to leave him behind so that they may survive. His radical act of suddenly engaging the jet thrusters in hope of sending a distress signal, can also be judged as an act of heroism on part of the leader, when he successfully safe-zoned his team out of danger (Franco 2016). An overall judgement of the character of Spock reveals that leaders like him may not be too friendly to work with, but are uncompromising on the efficiency-front. They are dedicated, work-oriented, self-less and responsible leaders, valued and respected by the entire team (Halmburger, Baumert and Schmitt 2016; Duncan 2013). This is proven by the fact that the team members chose to rescue Spock and not leave him alone in-spite of his discreet orders to do so when he was injured. Conclusion In lieu of the above discussion, it may be said that Spock is a very rational and logical person. He tries to work based on only logic which his team members may find heart less at times Spock steps up boldly into every situation and helps his team reach new places and achieve what they had thought of accomplishing. Thus considering all aspects of the character, it may be said that Spock is a leader capable of guiding his team in the best possible manner. References Balzac, S.R., 2014. Leadership, Power, and Emotional Intelligence. InOrganizational Psychology for Managers(pp. 63-82). Springer New York. Duncan, C., 2013.Unite the Tribes: Leadership Skills for Technology Managers. Apress. Franco, Z.E., 2016. Heroism in Times of Crisis.Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership, p.185. Greenberger, R., 2012.Star Trek: The Complete Unauthorized History. Voyageur Press (MN). Gregory, C., 2016.Star Trek: Parallel Narratives. Springer. Halmburger, A., Baumert, A. and Schmitt, M., 2016. Determinants of Moral Courage.Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership. Hermalin, B.E., 2014. At the helm, Kirk or Spock? The pros and cons of charismatic leadership.Browser Download This Paper. Hermalin, B.E., 2014.At the Helm, Kirk or Spock? Why Even Wholly Rational Actors May Favor and Respond to Charismatic Leaders. Working paper, UC Berkeley. Hicks, E.A., 2017. Designing Effective Teams for Technical Services: The Role of Leadership, Followership, and Group Emotional Intelligence. Houllou, J.R.Z., 2016. A multido nos seriados Star Trek e Heroes: dissensos do imperialismo ao imprio.Doutorado Cincia da Linguagem Florianpolis-Tubaro. Hurwitz, M. and Hurwitz, S., 2015.Leadership is half the story: A fresh look at followership, leadership, and collaboration. University of Toronto Press. Nichols, K., 2017. Case Study# 4: Star Trek by Gene Roddenberry.Public Voices,13(2), pp.143-161. Rehak, B., 2016. Transmedia space battles: reference materials and miniatures wargames in 1970s Star Trek fandom.Science Fiction Film Television,9(3), pp.325-345. Reynolds, S., 2015.Leadership 101. Defense Acquisition University Fort Belvoir United States. Startrek.com (2017).Ferris, Galactic High Commissioner. [online] StarTrek.com. Available at: https://www.startrek.com/database_article/ferris [Accessed 15 Oct. 2017]. StarTrek.com (2017).Galileo Seven, The. [online] StarTrek.com. Available at: https://www.startrek.com/database_article/galileo-seven-the [Accessed 15 Oct. 2017]. Zehetner, K. and Steinkellner, P., 2014. Servant Leadership in Finance-Contradiction or Symbiosis?.International Journal of Arts Sciences,7(2), p.361.
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: How to the Directors or the Management of Businesses? Answer: Introduction At the time of running of the businesses, the board of directors or the management of the businesses has to face some major financial risks. These financial risks are major hindrances for the performance of the businesses. Examples of the major financial risks are exposure risk, operational risk, credit risk, market risk, foreign exchange risk, economic volatility risk, liquidity risk, inflation risk and many others (Hull 2012). In order to mitigate all these financial risk factors, the business organizations need to employ effective risk management strategies. Financial Risk Management is the process of increasing the economic value of the organization by effectively managing the above-mentioned risks effectively. In the process of financial risk management, the business organizations use different kinds of strategies as if the strategy is diversifications and others (Christoffersen 2012). In the process of risk management, a crucial strategy is the hedging strategy. Hedging is the process to reduce or to control the financial risks of the business organizations. The main objective of the process of hedging is to reduce the risks related with the future change in the value of future position. Different kinds of techniques are used in the process of hedging; but in this process, hedging takes opposite and equal position in two different markets. Another crucial objective of hedging is to protect the capital of the business against the economic inflation with the help of investment in the financial instruments with high yield. Hence, hedging can be considered as one of the major tools to reduce different kinds of financial risks of the businesses (Bielecki and Rutkowski 2013). Company Background The study involves with the analysis and evaluation of the financial risk management processes of one of the best mining companies. BHP Billiton Limited. BHP Billiton is one of the largest Anglo-Australian multinational mining corporations that are involved with the processes of mining, metals and petroleum. The company was incorporated in the year of 1985 and the headquarter of the company is in Melbourne, Australia. BHP Billiton has its business operations spread all over the world. The major products of the company are iron ore, coal, natural gas, copper, petroleum and others. BHP Billiton has an employee base of 65,000. It has been seen that the company has been facing some major financial risks like external risks, operational risks and others (bhpbilliton.com 2017). Identification of the Primary Financial Risks of BHP Billiton In the business operations of BHP Billiton, the management of financial risks is an important aspect. One of the major mottos of the company is to provide greater certainty and confidence to the stakeholders of the organization by managing the business risks effectively. On the other hand, the process of business decision-making of BHP Billiton largely depends on the financial risk management of the company. As the study is about the financial risk management of BHP Billiton, it is needed to discuss the major financial risks of the company. The primary financial risks of BHP Billiton are shown below: One of the major financial risks of BHP Billiton is involved with the failure of Samarco dam. On 5 November 2015, the Samarco dam faced a trailing failure. This dam failure had an adverse effect on the financial operations of the company (Labonne 2016). The Samarco dam failure significantly affected the financial result of BHP Billiton in the financial year 2016. After the failure of Samarco dam, the business operations of BHP Billiton were closed for some days. This is an example of the incidents from where financial risks are derived. Apart from this, there are some other risks in the business operations of BHP Billiton. Another crucial financial risk of BHP Billiton is the interest rate risk. As per the financial report of BHP Billiton, the company had a total debt of $43,342 million in the year 2016. The amount of interest that needs to be paid is $12,241 million. Thus, it can be seen that the company has a huge amount of debt and this loan amount leads to a huge amount of intere st that needs to be paid in the future period (bhpbilliton.com 2017). It can be seen that BHP Billiton is exposed to the interest rate risks due to the huge amount of long-term debts. The floating rate of interest is changed with the economic condition of the country (Wu 2013). The next significant risk is the currency risk. It can be seen that the rate of currency is related with the economic condition of the country and the rate of interest. Due to worldwide economic slowdown, a significant fluctuation can be seen in the exchange rate of the currencies (Su et al. 2013). The next primary financial risk is the commodity price risk. Due to the world economic slowdown, the purchasing power of the customers has decreased and this reason affects the price of commodity of BHP Billiton. Another major financial risk of BHP Billiton is reduction in the Chinese demand. As per the speculation of the board of management of BHP Billiton, this reduction of demand is going to negatively affect the financial results of the organization (Lf and Ericsson 2015). Years Particulars Details 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Earnings Per Share (EPS) A 5.79 4.09 5.2 0.71 -2.4 Market Price Per Share B 78.42 68.2 47.32 25.76 35.78 Dividend Per Share C 2.2 2.28 2.36 2.48 1.56 P/E Ratio B/A 13.544 16.6748 9.1 36.2817 -14.908 Dividend Yield C/B 0.02805 0.03343 0.04987 0.09627 0.0436 The above table shows the Profit Earning Ration (P/E Ratio) and Dividend yield ratio for the last five years starting from 2012 to 2016. A higher amount of P/E ratio indicates that the investors are speculating higher growth of the company. From the above, it can be seen that the P/E ratio is in negative in 2016 as compared to 2015. Even the P/E ratio is in negative in 2016. It indicates that the investors are highly disappointed with the company due to various financial risks. From the dividend yield, it can be seen that the company has given less amount of dividend in 2016 as compared to 2015. It implies that the profit of the company is danger as the company is providing less amount of dividend. Recommendation on Hedging The above discussion sheds lights on the financial risks of BHP Billiton Limited. It can be seen that BHP Billiton has adopted many attractive strategies to mitigate the financial risks of the organization. However, based on the discussion about the primary financial risks of the organization, some major recommendations are provided below: In case of Samarco dam failure, it is recommended that BHP Billiton needs to investigate more on this failure to know the actual reason of the failure. In order to employ the effective risk management strategy, it is needed to know the main reasons of the failure of the dam. In this regard, it is necessary to form an investigation committee to discover the major reason of the failure (Smith 2016). As per the above discussion, another major primary financial risk of the company is the interest rate risk. As the fluctuation of interest risk is largely depends on the economic condition, the process hedging is to be recommended in this regard. The strategy of hedging is needed to mitigate the risk involved in the interest rates (Bingham and Kiesel 2013). As per the above discussion, the nest risk is the currency rate risk. In this regard, the recommendation is to adopt the strategy of hedging in the aspect of currency risk. As per the annual report of the organization, the company has also adopted the strategy of hedging in case of currency risks. The recommendation is same as the adopted strategy of the company as the process of hedging helps to reduce the financial risks of the organizations (Scordis and Steinorth 2012). The above discussion indicates that the next risk of BHP Billiton is the commodity risk. In relation with the commodity price risk, it is recommended to employ the strategy of hedging. The strategy of hedging will be helpful to mitigate the risks related to the commodity prices. The recommendation is provided in accordance to the strategy of the company as the company also adopted the strategy of hedging (Goss 2013). In case of the reduction of Chinese demand, it is recommended to investigate into the matter to know the reasons of the decrease in the demand. These are the recommended strategies that BHP Billiton needs to strategies to mitigate the financial risks of the company (Shen, Gao and Cheng 2012). Recommendation on Hedging As per the above discussion about the recommendation regarding the solution of the financial risks of the organization, there are three cases where the strategy of hedging is recommended. They are interest rate risk, currency rate risk and commodity price risk. this part of the study shows the type of derivatives strategies that needs to be strategies. In the case of interest rate risk, it is recommended to adopt the swap derivative for the process of hedging. Swap derivative is considered as one of the most complex derivatives. The adoption of swat derivatives allows the participants to change their cash flows. It can be seen that BHP Billiton has a large number of term debts and for this reason, the company has to pay a large amount of interest in the future. However, with the help of hedging through swap derivative, the company will be able to change its rate of interest from fixed rate to floating rate or floating rate to fixed rate. This is a private contract and the related parties can go for negotiation at the time of hedging (Saretto and Tookes 2013). In case of the currency risk, it is recommended to adopt the strategy of forward contract derivative at the time of hedging process. Forward contract is the most common and widely used contract. In the process of forward contract, two parties are agreed upon a contract to sell something in the near future and the selling price is determined at present situation. With the help of this hedging strategy, BHP Billiton will be able to set the price of the currency based on the recent time. This will help the organization to avoid the negative effect of the change in exchange rate of the currencies. It is not compulsory to disclose the all the information about forward contract hedging to people (Aid, Campi and Langren 2013). However, in case of the currency risks of the organization, the most suitable procedure will be the hedging process with the help of future contracts. In case of the future contracts, the selling or buying process takes place in near future, but the prices in which th e selling or buying process takes place will be determined in the present time. The third risk is about the risk of commodity price. In this regard, it is recommended to adopt the option contract in the process of hedging. In the process of option contract, to parties are agreed upon to sale or purchase something in the near future. In this case, one party has the obligation to sell or purchase in the near future and another party has the power to decide whether he/she wants to sell or purchase. With the help of this strategy, BHP Billiton will be able to sell his products in the near future. In this derivative, the organization will be able to make decision on the selling or purchasing the commodities in pre-determined prices. This process of hedging will be useful for the company to mitigate the risks regrinding the prices of the commodity of the organization (Voit 2013). Hedging Strategies As per the above discussion, it can be seen that there are three kinds of risks. They are interest rate risk, currency rate risk and commodity price risk. Among all these three risks, the currency rate risk and commodity prices risk will be hedged with full exposure. The interest rate swap will not be hedged. Same like the interest rate risk, the currency rate risk will not be hedged. The main reason is that the company has its presence all over the world and for this reason the company has to make currency exchanges in several countries. The main focus of the report is to make the hedging of the commodity price risk of the company (Dong, Kouvelis and Su 2014). Hundred percent of the exposure of commodity price of the company will be hedged. It implies that company will hedge all the future purchase of the commodities of the organization as the company is considering that there will be fluctuations in the future price of the commodities. As per the provided information, the hedging time or horizon is December 2017. As the company is dealing with crude oil, the future prices of crude oil will be USD $51.74. However, the company is speculating that the price of crude oil will be decreased in the near future. Hence, there is a risk that the company may have to face losses. For this reason, the company will buy put option. This process will help the company to hedge the loss amount. For example, the company is considering the fact the price of crude oil will be decreased to USD $45.74 in future. If not hedged, the company has to face the loss of USD $6 ($51.74 - $45.74). The advantage of having the hedging strategy is that with the help of put option, the company will hedge the risk of USD $6 (Loss 2012). Particulars Value Hedging Strategy Buy Put Current Price USD $51.74 Expected Price (Future) USD $45.74 Declining Price USD $6 ($51.74 - $45.74) Adequacy of Hedging in BHP Billiton As per the above discussion, it can be understood that the main purpose of the implementation of the hedging process is to minimize the risks of the business organization. There is not any exception of this fact in case of BHP Billiton. From the annual report of the company, it can be seen that the company has adopted the strategy of hedging the various aspects of the financial business operations. It can also be been seen that the company has adopted different derivatives for different business operations. One can take the example of currency rate risk of the company. It can be seen that the organization have adopted the swap derivative for the process of heeding. In case of the commodity price risk, BHP Billiton has adopted the future contract hedging strategy. Hence, it can be seen that the company has hedged the business operations based on the merit of the risks. In this regard, it can be said that BHP Billiton has done quite a good job as the company is adequately hedged. Howev er, it is recommended the company needs to frequently review its hedging techniques to know that whether there is any loopholes in the hedging process of the company. It is also recommended that BHP Billiton should also search for scopes so that the hedging processes of the company can make more effective (bhpbilliton.com 2017). Conclusion According to the above discussion, it can be seen that there are some major financial risks in the business operation of BHP Billiton. They are commodity price risk, interest rate risk, currency rate risk, decrease in Chinese demand, the samarco dam risk and many others. Among all these risks, commodity price risk, interest rate risk and currency rate risk demand the strategy of hedging to be minimized. As per the recommendation, swap derivative hedging process will be applicable for interest rate risk; forward contract derivative risk will be applicable for currency rate risk and option contract derivative hedging process will be applicable for commodity price risk. It can be seen that BHP Billiton is adequately hedged as the company has hedged most of the business activities based on the merit of the risks. However, it is recommended that the company need to review its hedging activities for improvements. References Aid, R., Campi, L. and Langren, N., 2013. A Structural Risk?Neutral Model for Pricing and Hedging Power Derivatives.Mathematical Finance,23(3), pp.387-438. BHP Billiton. (2017).BHP Billiton | Minerals Australia. [online] Available at: https://www.bhpbilliton.com/our-businesses/minerals-australia [Accessed 19 May 2017]. Bhpbilliton.com. 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